A typical installation location for such loading equipment is in the private environment in the garages of private homes or underground car parks. The charging station is part of the building. The typical charging capacity per charging point here is up to 22 kW, the so-called normal charging, whereby according to the German current application rule VDE-AR-N 4100 Charging devices for electric vehicles with rated power ≥ 3.6 kVA must be registered with the grid operator, and even require prior approval if the total rated power to be installed is > 12 kVA. IEC 60364-4-44 should be specifically mentioned here as the basis for determining the requirements of the surge protection to be provided. It describes “Protection against transient overvoltages due to atmospheric influences or switching operations”. For the selection of the components to be installed here, we refer to IEC 60364-5-53. A selection aid created by LSP facilitates the selection of the arresters in question. Please look here.
Charge mode 4
Last but not least, charging mode 4 describes the so-called fast charging process with > 22 kW, mostly with DC up to currently typically 350kW (perspectively 400kW and more). Such charging stations are mainly found in public areas. This is where IEC 60364-7-722 “Requirements for special operating facilities, rooms and systems – Power supply for electric vehicles” comes into play. An overvoltage protection against transient overvoltages due to atmospheric influences or during switching operations is explicitly required for charging points in publicly accessible facilities. If the charging stations are installed outside the building in the form of charging points, the required lightning and surge protection is selected according to the selected installation site. The application of the lightning protection zone (LPZ) concept in accordance with IEC 62305-4:2006 provides further important information on the correct design of lightning and surge arresters.
At the same time, the protection of the communication interface must be taken into account, especially for wall boxes and charging stations. This extremely important interface should not only be considered due to the recommendation of IEC 60364-4-44, as it represents the link between the vehicle, the charging infrastructure and the energy system. Here too, protection modules tailored to the application ensure the reliable and safe operation of electric mobility.
Sustainable mobility implications in surge protection systems
For an efficient and safe electrical vehicle charge, a specific instruction has been elaborated within the Low Voltage Regulation for the installations intended for that purpose: the ITC-BT 52. This instruction stresses the necessity to have specific material in transient and permanent surge protection. LSP has tailored solutions for compliance with this standard.
Although currently less than 1% of the Spanish automotive industry is sustainable, it is estimated that in 2050 there will exist around 24 million electric cars and in ten years’ time the amount will increase to 2,4 million.
This transformation in the number of cars slows down the climate change. However, this evolution also implies the adaptation of the infrastructures that will supply this new clean technology.
Protection against overvoltages in the charge of electric vehicles
The efficient and safe charge of electric cars is a key issue in the sustainability of the new system.
This charge should be made safely, guaranteeing the vehicle and the electric system conservation, with all the protection devices needed, including those related to overvoltages.
In this regard, charging installations for electric vehicles must comply with the ITC-BT 52 to protect all the circuits against transient and permanent surge protection that can damage the vehicle during the loading process.
The regulation was published by a royal decree in the Spanish Official Bulletin (Real Decreto 1053/2014, B.O.E), in which a new Complementary Technical Instruction ITC-BT 52 was approved: «Facilities for related purpose. Infrastructure for the charging of electric vehicles».
Instruction ITC-BT 52 of the Electrotechnical Low Voltage Regulation
This instruction requires to have new facilities for the supply of the charging stations as well as the modification of existing facilities that are supplied from the electric power distribution network to the following areas:
- In new buildings or parking lots a specific electric facility must be included for the charging of electric vehicles, executed in accordance with the established in the referred ITC-BT 52:
- a) in parking lots of buildings with a horizontal property regime a main conduction must be run through community zones (through tubes, channels, trays, etc.) so that it is possible to have branches connected to the charging stations located in the parking spaces, as it is described in section 3.2 of the ITC-BT 52.
- b) in private parking lots in cooperatives, businesses or offices, for staff or associates, or local vehicle depots, the necessary facilities must supply one charging station for every 40 parking spaces.
- c) in permanent public parking lots, the necessary facilities to supply a charging station for every 40 seats will be guaranteed.
It is considered that a building or a parking lot is newly constructed when the construction project is presented to the corresponding Public Administration for its processing on a date following the entry of the Royal Decree 1053/2014.
The buildings or parking lots prior to the publication of the royal decree had a period of three years to adapt to the new regulations.
- In the street, the necessary facilities must be considered to provide supply to the charging stations located in the spaces for electric vehicles planned in the regional or local Sustainable Mobility Plans.
What are the possible schemes for the installation of charging points?
The installation diagrams for the charge of electric vehicles that have been foreseen in the instruction are the following:
Collective or branch scheme with a main counter in the origin of the installation.
Individual scheme with a common counter for the house and the charging station.
Individual scheme with a counter for each charging station.
Scheme with circuit or additional circuits for charging electric vehicles.
Surge protection devices for the ITC-BT 52
All circuits must be protected against temporary (permanent) and transient overvoltages.
Transient surge protection devices must be installed in the proximity of the origin of the facility, or in the main board.
In November 2017, the Technical Guide of application of the ITC-BT 52 was published, where the following is recommended:
– To install a type 1 transient surge protection upstream of the main counter or next to the main switch, located at the entrance of the centralization of counters.
– When the distance between the charging station and the transient surge protection device located upstream is greater than or equal to 10 meters, it is recommended to install an additional transient surge protection device, type 2, next to the charging station or inside it.
Solution against transient and permanent overvoltages
In LSP we have the right solution for an effective protection against transient and permanent surges:
To protect against type 1 transient overvoltages, LSP has the FLP25 series. This element guarantees a high protection against transient overvoltages for power supply lines at the entrance of the building, including those produced by direct lightning discharges.
It is a type 1 and 2 protector according to the standard IEC/EN 61643-11. Its main characteristics are:
- Impulse current per pole (limp) of 25 kA and a protection level of 1,5 kV.
- It is formed by gas discharger devices.
- It has signs for the state of the protections.
For protection against type 2 transient overvoltages and permanent overvoltages, LSP recommends the SLP40 series.
Protect your electric vehicle
An electric vehicle can withstand a shock voltage of 2.500V. In case of an electrical storm, the voltage that could be transmitted to the vehicle is even 20 times higher than the voltage it can withstand, causing irreparable damages in all the system (controller, counter, communication systems, vehicle), even when the impact of the beam occurs at a certain distance.
LSP puts at your disposal the necessary products to protect the charging points against transient and permanent surges, ensuring the conservation of the vehicle. In case you are interested in acquiring the protection against overvoltages, you can rely on the help of our expert staff in the matter here.
Special scenarios cannot be covered comprehensively with universal solutions – just as a Swiss Army Knife can’t replace a well-equipped tool set. This also applies to the environment of EV charging stations and electric cars, especially since appropriate measuring, control and regulation instruments should ideally also be included in the protection solution. It is important both to have the right equipment and to make the right choice depending upon the situation. If you take this into consideration, you will find a high-reliability business segment in electro mobility – and a suitable partner in LSP.
Electromobility is a hot topic of present times and of the future. Its further development depends on the timely construction of an appropriate network charging stations which have to be safe and error-free in operation. This can be achieved by using LSP SPDs installed in both the power supply and inspection lines where they protect the electronic components of the charging stations.
Protection of the power supply mains
Overvoltages can be dragged-in into the charging station technology in a number of ways via the power supply line. Problems due to overvoltages arriving through the distribution network can reliably be minimized by using LSP high-performance lightning stroke current arresters and SPDs of the FLP series.
Protection of measuring and control systems
If we want to operate the above systems properly, we have to prevent the possibility of modification or deletion of data contained in the control or data circuits. The above mentioned data corruption may be caused by overvoltages.
LSP is a technology follower in AC&DC surge protection devices (SPDs). The company has grown steadily since its inception in 2010. With more than 25 employees, its own test laboratories, LSP product quality, reliability and innovation are guaranteed. Most of surge protection products are tested and certified independently to international standards (Type 1 to 3) according to IEC and EN. Customers come from a wide range of industries, including building/construction, telecommunications, energy (photovoltaic, wind, power generation in general and energy storage), e-mobility and rail. More information is available at https://www.LSP-international.com.com.